A Roth conversion ladder can be a smart strategy that allows you to move funds gradually from one account (traditional IRA) to another (Roth IRA) without triggering any tax penalties. This conversion takes place over several years, and is carefully planned out in advance. In simpler terms: A Roth conversion ladder could let you bypass the 10% early withdrawal penalty. Let’s break down how it works.
If you’re interested in a Roth conversion ladder, a financial advisor can walk you through the steps and tax requirements.
How a Roth IRA Works
A Roth IRA is a retirement savings account that can offer significant tax advantages.
Here’s how it works: You put in post-tax dollars (the money you’ve already paid taxes on) and let it grow over time. Then, when you’re ready to retire, the money you withdraw can be tax-free.
These accounts also do not mandate minimum distributions per year and allow you to keep contributing no matter your age.
Roth IRA Contribution and Income Limits
There are, however, some rules involved with how much you can contribute to a Roth IRA. For 2023, the contribution limit is $6,500, or $7,500 if you’re age 50 or older.
But, take note: Contributions get phased out in 2023 for high earners or individuals with incomes above $153,000 for single filers and $228,000 for married couples filing jointly.
What happens if you accidentally exceed these limits? Over-contribution can carry a 6% penalty, and if your income surpasses the limit and you keep contributing, you also face a 6% penalty on those contributions.
Thus, understanding these restrictions can help you sidestep unnecessary penalties and ensure that you capitalize on your Roth IRA.
What Is a Roth IRA Conversion?
A Roth IRA conversion allows you to move funds from a traditional IRA or a 401(k) to a Roth IRA. You typically do this to gain tax advantages, specifically your money will continue to grow tax-free after you pay taxes on the conversion upfront.
This strategy could benefit retirement savers who expect to move into a higher tax bracket in their golden years, want to decrease the amount of required minimum distributions (RMDs) or aim to leave tax-free income for their heirs.
Keep in mind, that just like other financial moves, you will incur costs. And, converting your IRA also carries tax implications.
The amount transferred to a Roth IRA will be taxed as ordinary income in the year of your conversion. But, it offers potential growth and withdrawal benefits afterward.
In addition to tax-free growth, qualified withdrawals in retirement can also be tax-free, which can offer you greater flexibility to manage your retirement income.
How a Roth IRA Conversion Ladder Works
A Roth IRA conversion ladder is a strategy that allows you to access retirement savings early. To do this, you convert a portion of your traditional IRA funds to a Roth IRA over a number of years.
By spacing out conversions, you can effectively access your retirement savings early without restrictions. But you’ll have to wait five years before you can access your retirement savings without penalty (more information in the section below).
This strategy could benefit you potentially because it offers tax diversification and flexibility in managing retirement income, in addition to penalty-free access to your retirement funds.
Roth IRA conversion ladders are also used commonly by early retirees who want to make the most of their retirement in their 50s, and those with other sources of income who want to optimize their tax situation in retirement.
Understanding the 5-Year Waiting Period
While Roth IRAs allow you to take money out without taxes or penalties, conversions work differently.
For each conversion, you’ll have a five-year waiting period, which means that if you take the money out before this time, you’ll have to pay a 10% early withdrawal penalty.
If you take the money out within the five years, you’ll only have to pay the 10% withdrawal penalty since you already paid income taxes upfront when you made the conversion.
There is some good news: Certain circumstances, such as being a first-time homebuyer, accruing education-related expenses or significant medical costs, can exempt you from this rule.
When using this strategy, make sure not to overlook other tax implications as well. For example, if you convert a large amount in a single year, you could shift into a higher tax bracket. And this can lead to an unexpectedly large tax bill.
For a clear understanding, it’s best to work with a tax professional to ensure that you’re completing the transfer correctly and don’t incur any penalties.
A Roth IRA conversion strategy is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Your financial situation is as unique as you are. Navigating the landscape of Roth IRAs and Roth IRA conversion ladders can be complex, but with personalized advice, you can be well-equipped to make savvy decisions for your financial future.
Tips for Retirement Planning
- Understanding how much you need to save for retirement is a number that can change over time based on inflation or growing needs. Having a financial advisor in your corner can help protect against potential changes by always maximizing your potential to reach your long-term financial goals. Finding a financial advisor doesn’t have to be hard. SmartAsset’s free tool matches you with up to three vetted financial advisors who serve your area, and you can have a free introductory call with your advisor matches to decide which one you feel is right for you. If you’re ready to find an advisor who can help you achieve your financial goals, get started now.
- You may want to frequently use a retirement calculator to help you know if you’re still on track to save enough money for the retirement you want.
Photo credit: ©iStock.com/Pekic, ©iStock.com/izusek, ©iStock.com/vorDa