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Tax Liability

The term “tax liability” describes the amount of money owed to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) at the end of each tax year. Many Americans make reducing their tax liability a goal by chasing deductions and tweaking their filing strategy. If you want to know the answer to the question “Do I have tax liability?” you’ll have to compare your income to the deductions, exemptions and credits for which you’re eligible.

Check out our federal income tax calculator

Definition

The definition of tax liability is the money you owe in taxes to the government. In general, when people refer to this term they’re referring to federal income tax liability. If your income is low enough you won’t have any tax liability at all. Your standard deduction will exceed your taxable income, leaving you with nothing owed to the IRS. Millions of Americans are in this situation. They don’t pay federal income taxes and many don’t file taxes.

That doesn’t mean, however, that they don’t pay taxes at all. Most of those who don’t pay federal income taxes pay payroll taxes through work. There are also state and local taxes, sales taxes and sin taxes that capture revenue even from folks with very low incomes.

How to Reduce Your Tax Liability

If you’re not among the group with no income tax liability and you want to reduce your tax bill, what can you do? There are a few strategies.

First off, it’s a good idea to make sure that you’re claiming all the deductions you’re eligible to claim. This is where tax preparation software (like TurboTax or H&R Block) or the service of an accountant can really come in handy, but it possible to DIY.

If you want to reduce your tax liability you can also adjust your payroll tax exemptions by filing a new W-4 with your employer. There are different schools of thought around this tax strategy, though. If you have too little withheld you’ll owe more at tax time. Nobody likes that feeling.

On the one hand, you will have more money in your paycheck throughout the year and you can put that money to work for you by investing it. On the other hand, if you have more withheld from your payroll taxes you’ll reduce your tax liability, but the government will be earning the interest on that money throughout the year, not you.

Another popular method for reducing your tax liability is to donate to charity. Donations to qualified charities are tax-deductible. A tax deduction reduces your taxable income, which in turn reduces your tax liability. Giving away money or other assets is a great way to both lower your tax bill and support the causes close to your heart.

It’s important to obtain proper documentation for all of your donations. And of course, you can only deduct donations if you decide to itemize your deductions rather than taking the Standard Deduction. For many people, the Standard Deduction gives them a bigger tax break than they would get if they itemized, but your mileage may vary.

Here at SmartAsset, our favorite way to reduce tax liability and prepare for your future is to save for retirement. Contributions to 401(k)s reduce your taxable income, as do contributions to deductible traditional IRAs. Just remember, contributions to Roth IRAs do not reduce your tax liability in the year you contribute because Roth IRAs are funded with post-tax dollars.

Deferred Tax Liability

Tax Liability

Own a business? You may need to understand how deferred tax liability works. It stems from what’s called a “book-tax difference.” The difference stems from the fact that financial accounting rules and IRS rules differ.

Take 5-year depreciation of a business asset as an example of deferred tax liability. Accounting rules and IRS rules are different when it comes to depreciation. The difference between the tax expense (from financial accounting) and the tax payable (from IRS accounting) tells you whether you have a deferred tax liability or a deferred tax asset. If in the future you will pay more to the IRS than the tax expense noted in your books, you have a deferred tax liability. This also happens if a business reports less taxable income than the income on their financial statements.

Your business has a deferred tax asset if less tax will be paid in the future than is due now. In other words, a deferred tax asset is the opposite of a deferred tax liability. If a company reports more tax revenue than revenue on the books (income statement) in the current period, they will in effect “prepay” their taxes. That means less taxable income and taxes to pay in the future. For example, bad debt is calculated differently in financial vs. tax accounting, leading to higher tax payable in the year of the debt and lower taxes in the future. That’s a deferred tax asset.

Bottom Line

Tax Liability

Whether you’re a business owner or a regular tax filer, figuring out your tax liability ahead of time is a great way to avoid surprises come April. Still, the unpredictable nature of taxes is one reason it’s so important to keep a comfortable cushion in the form of an emergency fund. That way, if your tax liability varies from year to year you’ll have enough to cover the difference.

Update: So many people reached out to us looking for tax and long-term financial planning help, we started our own matching service to help you find a financial advisor. A matching tool like SmartAsset’s SmartAdvisor can help you find a person to work with to meet your needs. First you answer a series of questions about your situation and your goals. Then the program narrows down thousands of advisors to three fiduciaries who meet your needs. You can read their profiles to learn more about them, interview them on the phone or in person and choose who to work with in the future. This allows you to find a good fit while we do most of the hard work for you.

Photo credit: © iStock/aydinynr, © iStock/TCassidy, © iStock/Biletskiy_Evgeniy

Amelia Josephson Amelia Josephson is a writer passionate about covering financial literacy topics. Her areas of expertise include retirement and home buying. Amelia's work has appeared across the web, including on AOL, CBS News and The Simple Dollar. She holds degrees from Columbia and Oxford. Originally from Alaska, Amelia now calls Brooklyn home.
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